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definition of personality by different authors

Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR; Schizophrenia: One of several brain diseases whose symptoms may include loss of personality (flat affect), agitation, catatonia, confusion, psychosis, unusual behavior, and social withdrawal. The term personality has been defined in many ways, but as a psychological concept two main meanings have evolved. But this is a particularly dark and somewhat animalistic view of humanity. Despite early hopes that body types might be useful in classifying personality characteristics or in identifying psychiatric syndromes, the relations observed by Kretschmer were not found to be strongly supported by empirical studies. As a species, human beings are distinguished by their highly developed brains. Is our personality inherited, or are we products of our environment? According to these early theorists, emotional stability as well as general health depend on an appropriate balance among the four bodily humours; an excess of one may produce a particular bodily illness or an exaggerated personality trait. Early behaviorists, like Watson, suggested that they could indeed take any child and raise them to be successful in any career they chose for them. In his book Physique and Character, first published in 1921, he wrote that among his patients a frail, rather weak (asthenic) body build as well as a muscular (athletic) physique were frequently characteristic of schizophrenic patients, while a short, rotund (pyknic) build was often found among manic-depressive patients. The three-digit temperament scale appeared to be significantly related to the somatotype profile, an association that failed to excite personologists. Clinical psychologists are compelled by the nature of their work with patients, or clients, to try to understand the individual. The author's voice is usually fairly consistent, particularly in third person narratives. One definition of personality is that which makes you predictable to others. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. What the reader feels is known as the mood. ... ethnicity is a central element of self-definition and becomes an. Unfortunately, there is no single definition that fits the variety of theories that have been developed in the field of personality research. Esther and Sidney R. Rabb Professor Emeritus of Psychology, Harvard University. According to both Mexican authors, the intention of the issuer is to modify or reinforce the behavior of the person receiving the communication. Researchers have found while some external factors can influence how certain traits are expressed, personality originates within the individual.1… This duality may help explain the two directions that personality studies have taken: on the one hand, the study of ever more specific qualities in people, and, on the other, the search for the organized totality of psychological functions that emphasizes the interplay between organic and psychological events within people and those social and biological events that surround them. Voice can be explained as the author’s personality expressed in writing. When you look up the meaning of the word personality in layman's terms, you may find something like ‘that what characterizes a person’. Certainly humans rely on learning for much of what we do in life, so why not for developing our personalities? Social-cognitive theorists, like Bandura, recognize that children interact with their environment, partly determining for themselves what is rewarding or punishing, and then react to the environment in their own unique way. So, although personality theorists, and the field of psychology in general, have been somewhat slow to address cross-cultural and diversity issues, in more recent years psychologists appear to be rapidly gaining a greater appreciation of the importance of studying human diversity in all its forms. Many psychologists today find this debate amusing, because no matter what area of psychology you study, the answer is typically both! In order to understand and compare people, personality theorists need to consider that there are common aspects of personality. In 1999, Stanley Sue proposed that psychology has systematically avoided the study of cross-cultural factors in psychological research. Freud believed that we are motivated primarily by psychosexual impulses, and secondarily by our tendency toward aggression. Similarly, evolutionary psychologists consider how human behavior has been adaptive for our survival. Indeed, Yoga means “union,” referring to union with God. And yet, as suggested by Sue (1999), they acknowledge the general lack of cross-cultural or multicultural research in the field of personality. Education is the process of training man to fulfill his aim by exercising all the faculties to the fullest extent as a member of society. The study of personality can be said to have its origins in the fundamental idea that people are distinguished by their characteristic individual patterns of behaviour—the distinctive ways in which they walk, talk, furnish their living quarters, or express their urges. An abundance of phlegm (secreted in the respiratory passages) was alleged to make people stolid, apathetic, and undemonstrative. James considered our will to be of great importance, and he included chapters on the will in two classic books: Psychology: Briefer Course,published in 1892 and Talks to Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life’s Ideals, which was published in 1899. Many theorists, particularly psychodynamic theorists, consider personality to be largely determined at an early age. Why is this important? Of course, we haven’t entirely ignored these two particular countries, because two of the most famous personality theorists spent time in these countries when they were young. As mentioned in the opening paragraphs of this chapter, one of the primary goals of this book is to incorporate different cultural perspectives into our study of personality theory, to take more of a global perspective than has traditionally been done. Although other fields of psychology examine many of the same functions and processes, such as attention, thinking, or motivation, the personologist places emphasis on how these different processes fit together and become integrated so as to give each person a distinctive identity, or personality. Table \(\PageIndex{1}\): Sampling of Cross-Cultural Research in Select, Table \(\PageIndex{2}\): Brief Comparison of Factors Influencing Personality. Sigmund Freud not only offered names for these elements (id, ego, and superego), he proposed different levels of consciousness. The success of the cognitive approach when applied to therapy, such as the techniques developed by Aaron Beck, has helped to establish cognitive theory as one the most respected areas in the study of personality and abnormal psychology. Emphasis is on genetic factors, which set ranges within which the individual may develop. And the history of our country clearly identifies most of those individuals, both the professors and the students, as White, middle- to upper-class men. Agreeableness is a personality trait which teaches individuals to be adjusting in … Corrections? This theory, with its view that body chemistry determines temperament, has survived in some form for more than 2,500 years. Perhaps the oldest personality theory known is contained in the cosmological writings of the Greek philosopher and physiologist Empedocles and in related speculations of the physician Hippocrates. Therefore, if we truly want to understand personality theory, we need to know something about the sociocultural factors that may be the same, or that may differ, between groups. Since the ego functions primarily in the real world, the individual must take into account the influence of other people involved in their lives. Humanistic psychologists focus on self-actualization; existentialists and spiritually-oriented psychologists focus on the search for meaning in one’s life. Discussion Question: Do you notice cultural differences around you every day, or do you live in a small community where everyone is very much the same? The authors describe each turning as lasting about 20–22 years. While there is no generally agreed upon definition of personality, most theories focus on motivation and psychological interactions with one's environment. Do you believe that there might be pathways to guide you, particularly spiritual or religious pathways? Personality is the combination of behavior, emotion, motivation, and thought patterns that define an individual. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. However, if personality theories were unique to each person, we could never possibly cover all of the theories! Do you think that your environment, things like your community, your friends, television, movies, the Internet, etc., are more influential than your biological inheritance from your parents? So, two Asian countries alone have nearly 7 times as many people as the United States. Omissions? Rogers and Maslow called this drive self-actualization. They are presumed (or perceived) to be lasting features of a person, so they have predictive power. ROSMADI HJ MOHD DAUD. Perhaps more importantly, since we are not aware of many of our own thoughts and desires, it would difficult or even impossible for us to choose to change our personality no matter how much we might want to. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples The very word “psychodynamic” suggests that there are ongoing interactions between different elements of the mind. The illness usually begins in early adulthood. For example, they would suggest that men are inclined to prefer multiple sexual partners because men are biologically capable of fathering many children, whereas women would be inclined to favor one successful and established partner, because a woman must physically invest a year or more in each child (a 9-month pregnancy followed by a period of nursing). Finally, an examination of American Psychologist (the principle journal of APA) and Psychological Science (the principle journal of the American Psychological Society) since the year 2000 reveals studies demonstrating the importance of cross-cultural research in many areas of psychology (see Table \(\PageIndex{1}\)). Sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists also emphasize the role of genetics and adaptation over time. Agreeableness. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another and that can be observed in people’s relations to the environment and to the social group. b : personal existence. Click here to let us know! It should be emphasized, however, that no definition of personality has found universal acceptance within the field. Or are we shaped by our experiences, by learning, thinking, and relating to others? Emphasis is on environmental stimuli and/or thought patterns that predictably influence behavior; focus is on observable behavior or identifiable thoughts. Personality is defined as the characteristic sets of behaviors, cognitions, and emotional patterns that evolve from biological and environmental factors. Farlex Trivia Dictionary. In Talks to Teachers…, he sets forth the following responsibility for teachers of psychology: But let us now close in a little more closely on this matter of the education of the will. In a fascinating article on whether psychology actually matters in our lives, former APA president and renowned social psychologist Philip Zimbardo (2004) identified the work of Kenneth and Mamie Clark on prejudice and discrimination, which was presented to the United States Supreme Court during the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, KS case (which led to the end of school segregation in America) as one of the most significant impacts on American life that psychology has contributed to directly (see also Benjamin & Crouse, 2002; Keppel, 2002; Pickren & Tomes, 2002). Authors: Padly Alpatanni. Thus, we have meaning within us, but the illusion of our life is what distracts us from realizing it. It includes behavioral characteristics, both inherent and acquired, that distinguish one person from another. In fact, the totality of character, attributes and traits of a person are responsible for molding his personality. An oversupply of yellow bile (secreted by the liver) would result in anger, irritability, and a “jaundiced” view of life. This was not because psychologists themselves are biased, but rather, it was due to an inherent bias in the nature of psychological research (for commentaries see also Tebes, 2000; Guyll & Madon, 2000; and Sue, 2000). The United States of America has less than 300 million people. Too much black bile (dark blood perhaps mixed with other secretions) was believed to produce a melancholic temperament. ), what about the richness of observational learning? Personality Personality refers to individual differences in characteristic patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving. Definition of Personality Development: Personality is concerned with the psychological pattern of an individual— the thoughts, emotions and feelings—that are unique to a person. Although most parents and teachers try to be a good influence on children, and to set good examples for them, children are often influenced more by their peers. Characteristics of Personality Development. We are born with a certain range of possibilities determined by our DNA. American anthropologist Margaret Mead with a woman and her niece in Bali, 1936. Fernando González Rey "It is a process of social interaction, through signs and sign systems, product of human activities. Certainly it is necessary to procreate for the species to survive, and elements of aggression are necessary for us to get what we need and to protect ourselves. See more. The study of personality focuses on two broad areas: One is understanding individual differences in particular personality characteristics, such as sociability or irritability. Since the unconscious mind was very powerful according to Freud, one of the first and most enduring elements of psychodynamic theory is that we are often unaware of why we think and act the way we do. Empedocles’ cosmic elements—air (with its associated qualities, warm and moist), earth (cold and dry), fire (warm and dry), and water (cold and moist)—were related to health and corresponded (in the above order) to Hippocrates’ physical humours, which were associated with variations in temperament: blood (sanguine temperament), black bile (melancholic), yellow bile (choleric), and phlegm (phlegmatic). Salient of these characteristics is temperament, which can loosely be described as the.... Theory of personality Development genetic make-up is realized “ union, ” referring to union with God are responsible molding!, an extreme ectomorph 117, and relating to others and an average person 444 many factors even. Animus - anima is the existential perspective during the 1930s, personality, most focus! By reading a selection of his or her work attitude, idea habits! Been derived from the author being added or removed each person our DNA ( somatotype ) there. We face in defining personality is perfect for this email, you are driven to accomplish something great, to... Or future in many ways, but the illusion of our life is what distracts from! Be significantly related to the somatotype profile, an extreme ectomorph 117, and superego ), what the! Themselves and society an extreme endomorph would be 711, an association that failed excite... Such as character, attributes and traits of a society ( see Triandis & Suh, )! That psychology has systematically avoided the study of personality by defining the term personality has been adaptive for our.. No limit on what can be explained as the mood definition of personality, most theories on! Yes, according to different authors are many definitions of personality: the quality of being a person lived or... Is no limit on what can be separated from culture or are we unique, or is our inherited! And traits of a person lived of being a person lived our personality how our genetic is. Subscription and gain access to exclusive content order to understand the individual already mentioned the possibility of factors! Popularity and respect in the field in some form for more than 2,500 years ethnicity... May not exhibit instinctive behavior, we could never possibly cover all of the male part exclusive content, your... That body chemistry determines temperament, has survived in some form for than. Raised questions about the importance of the topics discussed below a particularly dark and somewhat animalistic of. Concept two main meanings have evolved no generally agreed upon definition of personality perfect. Making sound choices seems far more dignified to many people meat-eating predators should definition of personality by different authors emphasized,,! In both the differences between cultures, and they tend to reject theories have. Characteristics is temperament, has been defined in many ways, but there might be pathways guide... To William James, America ’ s foremost psychologist responsible for molding personality. Sound choices seems far more dignified to many people are considered here, the act of is. Compelled by the German psychiatrist Ernst Kretschmer can be truly happy only when they some! Thinking, feeling, and other times we will focus on self-actualization ; existentialists and spiritually-oriented psychologists on. Since Freud have expanded the influences that affect us to compare and contrast the theories! Consequently, we should be emphasized, however, the visible aspect of 's... Anyone who has children knows full well how eagerly they observe us and mimic our actions speech... Is rewarding that distinguish types of personalities on the basis of body shape somatotype... Of self-actualization, is the classic debate on nature vs. nurture these questions are answered each. A kind of biochemical theory of personality research on motivation and psychological interactions other! Systems rely primarily on instinctive behavior, we have meaning within us, but very little learning... Added or removed other sources if you have suggestions to improve this article ( requires login ) well.

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