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On what authority have you waged such detestable wars against these people who dealt quietly and peacefully on their own lands? As a reward for his participation in various expeditions, he was given an encomienda—a royal land grant including Indian inhabitants—and he soon began to evangelize that population, serving as doctrinero, or lay teacher of catechism. [95], Opposition to Las Casas reached its climax in historiography with Spanish right-wing, nationalist historians in the late 19th and early 20th centuries constructing a pro-Spanish White Legend, arguing that the Spanish Empire was benevolent and just and denying any adverse consequences of Spanish colonialism. In 1513, as a chaplain, Las Casas participated in Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar's and Pánfilo de Narváez' conquest of Cuba. The Historia, which by his request was not published until after his death, is an account of all that had happened in the Indies just as he had seen or heard of it. The judges then deliberated on the arguments presented for several months before coming to a verdict. As Archbishop Loaysa strongly disliked Las Casas,[62] the ceremony was officiated by Loaysa's nephew, Diego de Loaysa, Bishop of Modruš,[63] with Pedro Torres, Titular Bishop of Arbanum, and Cristóbal de Pedraza, Bishop of Comayagua, as co-consecrators. [97], One persistent point of criticism has been Las Casas's repeated suggestions of replacing Indian with African slave labor. LAS CASAS, BARTOLOM É DE (1474 – 1566), Spanish historian and missionary. In 1513 he took part in the bloody conquest of Cuba and, as priest-encomendero (land grantee), received an allotment of Indian serfs. In May 1517, Las Casas was forced to travel back to Spain to denounce to the regent the failure of the Hieronymite reforms. Shortly after its publication in 1542, King Charles I passed several “New Laws” benefiting Indian serfs. Zhe Cui Prof. Nicholas MKTG-342 Case Analysis Feb 27, 2015 La Casa de Las Botas 1.Summary La Casa de Las Botas is a small company which has luxurious retail space in downtown Buenos Aires and a little workshop located about 10km to the west. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Bartolome-de-Las-Casas, United States History - Biography of Bartolomé de Las Casas, The Mariners' Museum - Exploration through the Ages - Biography of Bartolomé de las Casas, The Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Bartolome de las Casas, Bartolomé de Las Casas - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Bartolomé de Las Casas - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias. Bartolomé de Las Casas debates the subjugation of the Indians, 1550 | This tract, a summary of a debate concerning the subjugation of Indians, contains the arguments of Bartolomé de Las Casas, the Bishop of Chiapas, Mexico, and Juan Gines Sepulveda, an influential Spanish philosopher, concerning the treatment of American Indians in the New World. On Christmas Eve of 1515, Las Casas met the monarch and discussed the situation in the Indies with him; the king agreed to hear him out in more detail at a later date. The laws threatened the existence of the treasured encomienda system. As Ocampo's ships began returning with slaves from the land Las Casas had been granted, he went to Hispaniola to complain to the Audiencia. Unsurprisingly, they were extremely unpopular in the Americas and were met with much resistance. To secure the grant, Las Casas had to go through a long court fight against Bishop Fonseca and his supporters Gonzalo de Oviedo and Bishop Quevedo of Tierra Firme. [68], Las Casas returned to Spain, leaving behind many conflicts and unresolved issues. In addition, his critique towards the colonizers served to bring awareness to his audience on the true meaning of Christianity, to dismantle any misconceptions on evangelization. [14], With his father, Las Casas immigrated to the island of Hispaniola in 1502, on the expedition of Nicolás de Ovando. Although during his first 12 years in America Las Casas was a willing participant in the conquest of the Caribbean, he did not indefinitely remain indifferent to the fate of the indigenous peoples. Bartolomé de Las Casas, (born 1474 or 1484, Sevilla?, Spain—died July 1566, Madrid), early Spanish historian and Dominican missionary who was the first to expose the oppression of indigenous peoples by Europeans in the Americas and to call for the abolition of slavery there. [115] In this capacity, an ecumenical human rights institute located in San Cristóbal de las Casas, the Centro Fray Bartolomé de las Casas de Derechos Humanos, was established by Bishop Samuel Ruiz in 1989.[116][117]. [26] Aided by Pedro de Córdoba and accompanied by Antonio de Montesinos, he left for Spain in September 1515, arriving in Seville in November. By Bartoleme de Las Casas (1542) The Indies were discovered in the year one thousand four hundred and ninety-two. His most famous works included the Historia apologética (Apologetic History) and the Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies). [109][110], In 1848, Ciudad de San Cristóbal, then the capital of the Mexican state of Chiapas, was renamed San Cristóbal de Las Casas in honor of its first bishop. [102][103], The Dominican friars Antonio de Montesinos and Pedro de Córdoba had reported extensive violence already in the first decade of the colonization of the Americas, and throughout the conquest of the Americas, there were reports of abuse of the natives by friars and priests and ordinary citizens, and many massacres of indigenous people were reported in full by those who perpetrated them. He was brought into the world of the America 's through his father Pedro De Las Casas who was an encomiendo himself. In 1548 the Crown decreed that all copies of Las Casas's Confesionario be burnt, and his Franciscan adversary, Motolinia obliged and sent back a report to Spain. With the help of the archbishop, the Plan para la reformación de las Indias was conceived, and Las Casas, named priest-procurator of the Indies, was appointed to a commission to investigate the status of the Indians. This resulted in a new resolution to be presented to viceroy Mendoza. [71] Las Casas countered that the scriptures did not in fact support war against all heathens, only against certain Canaanite tribes; that the Indians were not at all uncivilized nor lacking social order; that peaceful mission was the only true way of converting the natives; and finally that some weak Indians suffering at the hands of stronger ones was preferable to all Indians suffering at the hands of Spaniards. It was important for Las Casas that this method be tested without meddling from secular colonists, so he chose a territory in the heart of Guatemala where there were no previous colonies and where the natives were considered fierce and war-like. Biographical Information Bartolomé de Las Casas was born to an aristocratic family in Seville in 1474. He was appointed as the first resident Bishop of Chiapas, and the first officially appointed "Protector of the Indians". [61], Before Las Casas returned to Spain, he was also appointed as Bishop of Chiapas, a newly established diocese of which he took possession in 1545 upon his return to the New World. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies[c] (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias) is an account written in 1542 (published in Seville in 1552) about the mistreatment of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in colonial times and sent to then-Prince Philip II of Spain. [55], But apart from the clerical business, Las Casas had also traveled to Spain for his own purpose: to continue the struggle against the colonists' mistreatment of the Indians. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. For other uses, see, Spanish Dominican friar, historian, and social reformer, Las Casas and Emperor Charles V: The peasant colonization scheme, "If one sacrifices from what has been wrongfully obtained, the offering is blemished; the gifts of the lawless are not acceptable. [90], The History of the Indies is a three-volume work begun in 1527 while Las Casas was in the Convent of Puerto de Plata. "Las Casas" redirects here. The Dominicans had been the first to indict the encomenderos, and they continued to chastise them and refuse the absolution of confession to slave owners, and even stated that priests who took their confession were committing a mortal sin. He also came into conflict with the Bishop of Guatemala Francisco Marroquín, to whose jurisdiction the diocese had previously belonged. PhD dissertation, Harvard University 1982. When his preaching met with resistance, he realized that he would have to go to Spain to fight there against the enslavement and abuse of the native people. Bartolomé de Las Casas, (born 1474 or 1484, Sevilla?, Spain—died July 1566, Madrid), early Spanish historian and Dominican missionary who was the first to expose the oppression of indigenous peoples by Europeans in the Americas and to call for the abolition of slavery there. Las Casas worked hard to convince the emperor that it would be a bad economic decision, that it would return the viceroyalty to the brink of open rebellion, and could result in the Crown losing the colony entirely. They stayed in the convent founded some years earlier by Fray Domingo Betanzos and studied the K'iche' language with Bishop Francisco Marroquín, before traveling into the interior region called Tuzulutlan, "The Land of War", in 1537. Bartolomé de Las Casas (c. 1484–July 18, 1566) was a Spanish Dominican friar who became famous for his defense of the rights of the Indigenous peoples of the Americas. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias, "July 2015: Bartolomé de las Casas and 500 Years of Racial Injustice | Origins: Current Events in Historical Perspective", "Bishop Bartolomé de las Casas (Casaus), O.P. While waiting, Las Casas produced a report that he presented to the Bishop of Burgos, Juan Rodríguez de Fonseca, and secretary Lope Conchillos, who were functionaries in complete charge of the royal policies regarding the Indies; both were encomenderos. He wrote many petitions, treatises, and books on the subject of the Spanish conquest of the Americas. Bartolomé de Las Casas was an outspoken critic of the Spanish colonial government in the Americas. [74], In 1552, Las Casas published A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies. Encouraged by the favourable outcome of this experiment, Las Casas set out for Spain late in 1539, arriving there in 1540. He drafted a suggestion for an amendment arguing that the laws against slavery were formulated in such a way that it presupposed that violent conquest would still be carried out, and he encouraged once again beginning a phase of peaceful colonization by peasants instead of soldiers. He joined the Dominican order in 1523. He never gives up and struggles throughout his life for a cause that seems impossible to achieve. Dominican Friar Bartolomé de Las Casas’s A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies is a primary source on the genocide of indigenous peoples during Spanish colonization of the Americas. He arrived in Hispaniola as a layman then became a Dominican friar and priest. ... Like one who kills a son before his father's eyes is the man who offers sacrifice from the property of the poor. Las Casas's point of view can be described as being heavily against some of the Spanish methods of colonization, which, as he described them, inflicted great losses on the indigenous occupants of the islands. He participated in campaigns at Bayamo and Camagüey and in the massacre of Hatuey. They did revoke some encomiendas from Spaniards, especially those who were living in Spain and not on the islands themselves; they even repossessed the encomienda of Fonseca, the Bishop of Burgos. A great humanitarian; he learnt human rights in his encounter with the people of Central and South America during the sixteenth century European invasion of the Americas. The account was one of the first attempts by a Spanish writer of the colonial era to depict the unfair treatment that the indigenous people endured during the early stages of the Spanish conquest of the Greater Antilles, particularly the island of Hispaniola. He also informed the Theologians of Salamanca, led by Francisco de Vitoria, of the mass baptism practiced by the Franciscans, resulting in a dictum condemning the practice as sacrilegious. Residencial Las Casas in Santurce, San Juan, Puerto Rico is named after Las Casas. They surpassed also the English and the French and some of the people of our own Spain; and they were incomparably superior to countless others, in having good customs and lacking many evil ones. By Daniel Castro. (Vol II, p. 257)[93]. [88], The Apologetic Summary History of the People of These Indies (Spanish: Apologética historia summaria de las gentes destas Indias) was first written as the 68th chapter of the General History of the Indies, but Las Casas changed it into a volume of its own, recognizing that the material was not historical. Why do you keep them so oppressed and exhausted, without giving them enough to eat or curing them of the sicknesses they incur from the excessive labor you give them, and they die, or rather you kill them, in order to extract and acquire gold every day. He became a land owner, employed native slave labor and was a full participant in the Spanish encomienda system. [73] The verdict was inconclusive, and both debaters claimed that they had won. Las Casas was disappointed and infuriated. [96][97] Spanish pro-imperial historians such as Menéndez y Pelayo, Menéndez Pidal, and J. Pérez de Barrada depicted Las Casas as a madman, describing him as a "paranoic" and a monomaniac given to exaggeration,[98] and as a traitor towards his own nation. Las Casas himself was granted the official title of Protector of the Indians, and given a yearly salary of one hundred pesos. However, it did not succeed. Gunst, Laurie. Sauvage spoke highly of Las Casas to the king, who appointed Las Casas and Sauvage to write a new plan for reforming the governmental system of the Indies. His stirring defense of the indigenous peoples before the Spanish Parliament in Barcelona in December 1519 persuaded King Charles I (the emperor Charles V), who was in attendance, to accept Las Casas’s project of founding “towns of free Indians”—i.e., communities of both Spaniards and Indians who would jointly create a new civilization in America. [37], Three Hieronymite monks, Luis de Figueroa, Bernardino de Manzanedo and Alonso de Santo Domingo, were selected as commissioners to take over the authority of the Indies. That said, finding fifty men willing to invest 200 ducats each and three years of unpaid work proved impossible for Las Casas. Las Casas says that for the good of humanity the world is divided into kingdoms, with kings who rule over them. The Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies) had an immediate impact in Spain. Las Casas became a hacendado and slave owner, receiving a piece of land in the province of Cibao. Las Casas's influence turned the favor of the court against Secretary Conchillos and Bishop Fonseca. Not just food markets, but also art and textile markets. [91][92] It was in the History of the Indies that Las Casas finally regretted his advocacy for African slavery, and included a sincere apology, writing, "I soon repented and judged myself guilty of ignorance. In 1531, he wrote a letter to Garcia Manrique, Count of Osorno, protesting again the mistreatment of the Indians and advocating a return to his original reform plan of 1516. His influence at court was so great that some even considered that he had the final word in choosing the members of the Council of the Indies. Bartolomé de las Casas. But soon his uncompromisingly pro-Indian position alienated his colleagues, and in 1547 he returned to Spain. [8] For centuries, Las Casas's birthdate was believed to be 1474; however, in the 1970s, scholars conducting archival work demonstrated this to be an error, after uncovering in the Archivo General de Indias records of a contemporary lawsuit that demonstrated he was born a decade later than had been supposed. Las Casas quickly evangelized the serfs on his land, and, in either 1512 or 1513, he became a priest. ", https://www.la-croix.com/Archives/2002-10-03/Ouverture-de-la-cause-de-beatification-de-Bartolome-de-La-Casas-_NP_-2002-10-03-166954, Frayba.org.mx – Fray Bartolome de las Casas Centro de Derechos Humanos, "Bills and Currency in Current Circulation", A Glimpse at the History of Lascassas School, "From Conquest to Constitutions: Retrieving a Latin American Tradition of the Idea of Human Rights", "Historical reality and the detractors of Father Las Casas", "Las Casas and Indigenism in the Sixteenth Century", "Fray Bartolomé de Las Casas: A Biographical Sketch", "The Forgotten Crucible: The Latin American Influence on the Universal Human Rights Idea", "Introduction: Approaches to Las Casas, 1535–1970", "Controversy between Sepúlveda and Las Casas", "Bartolomé de las Casas and Truth: Toward a Spirituality of Solidarity", "Another face of empire. Wars in which you have destroyed such an infinite number of them by homicides and slaughters never heard of before. 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